Mâalem Guinia #gnaoua #essaouira #Streetart #Graffiti
“ Many forget that the first Muslims to celebrate Ramadan in America were African slaves.
…Although the Quran “[a]llows a believer to abstain from fasting if he or she is far from home or involved in strenuous work,” many enslaved Muslims demonstrated transcendent piety by choosing to fast while bonded. In addition to abstaining from food and drink, enslaved Muslims held holy month prayers in slave quarters, and put together iftars - meals at sundown to break the fast - that brought observing Muslims together. These prayers and iftars violated slave codes restricting assembly of any kind… [exposing] them to barbaric punishment, injury, and oftentimes, even death…
Ramadan was widely observed by enslaved Muslims. Yet, this history is largely ignored by Muslim American leaders and laypeople alike - and erased from the modern Muslim American narrative.
…This Muslim American multiculturalism comes with many challenges: Namely, intra-racism, Arab supremacy, and anti-black racism prevents cohesion inside and outside of American mosques. These deplorable trends perpetuate the erasure of the Muslim slave narrative. ”
Slave owners used to call them sun worshippers, mistakenly judging from the raising of hands during du’a and sajdah at the five salat times. Many of these enslaved Africans came from the same regions Gnawa people (who were caught in the Arab slave trade and continue to practice Islam, fused with African animist belief) call home today: Niger, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, etc.(via divanoid)